Kenya’s distinctive mountains thrust upwards from the lowland plateau and act as water towers that capture rainfall and create a system of drainage basins—supplying water across highlands and lowlands. The heavy vegetation cover of montane ecosystems regulates flooding, erosion and nutrient cycles. The most fertile and productive farmlands and ranches are located in Kenya’s uplands and around the base of high mountains. The mountain habitats also supply a wide range of forest products, including lumber, bamboo, fuelwood, honey, medicinal plants and traditional foods, and offer a place to shelter from drought. In traditional cultures mountains are places of great spiritual and cultural significance, retreats for special ceremonies, and citadels of wonder, awe and worship. Adding to these ancient services and goods are a range of new values including biodiversity, aesthetics, tourism, outdoor recreation, adventure, wilderness, education, science, climate change amelioration, and carbon capture and credits.